Effector function can also be operative at the cellular level. As an example, intestinal double-positive CD4(+)CD8(+) T cells kindle highly activated memory cells with an increased capacity to produce cytokines of which IL-17 is currently on the forefront.
Poising at the ready in order to avoid panic upon arrival of predators, the mathematical model established by MTA (Hungarian Academy of Sciences) purports a balanced equilibrium between free antibody, antigen and immune complexes – which seems plausible and puts complexes nicely in a network of companion humoral and cellular elements of innate and acquired immunity.
Phages (viruses that infect bacteria) display proteins on their outside for which one has inserted an intended genetic information. Big data libraries of proteins lets us to select the one which we need for therapeutical purpose then to be amplified in bioreactors. Besides using the phage display technique for therapeutics, the study of protein-protein interactions becomes possible for diagnostic purposes in detail and one can produce affinity reagents. Functional specific protein-based inhibitors, called Affimer proteins, can be used to prevent immune complex binding to Fc gamma receptors hence blocking IgG interaction with single receptor specificities.
Under the electron microscope, factor H, now in the limelight of the drug-developing industry (www.optherion.com, www.taligentherapeutics.com), looks like beads on a string with the ability to fold back on itself.