Effector function can also be operative at the cellular level. As an example, intestinal double-positive CD4(+)CD8(+) T cells kindle highly activated memory cells with an increased capacity to produce cytokines of which IL-17 is currently on the forefront.
Poising at the ready in order to avoid panic upon arrival of predators, the mathematical model established by MTA (Hungarian Academy of Sciences) purports a balanced equilibrium between free antibody, antigen and immune complexes – which seems plausible and puts complexes nicely in a network of companion humoral and cellular elements of innate and acquired immunity.
Under the electron microscope, factor H, now in the limelight of the drug-developing industry (www.optherion.com, www.taligentherapeutics.com), looks like beads on a string with the ability to fold back on itself. For details go to: Molecular Immunology 2010, www.elsevier.com/locate/molimm